Absorbing and Storing Photons with The Primary Visual Cortex, V1
The primary visual cortex is anatomically equivalent to Brodmann area 17, or BA17. The extrastriate cortical areas consist of Brodmann area 18 and Brodmann area 19. There is a visual cortex for each hemisphere of the brain. The left hemisphere visual cortex receives photons from the right visual field and the right visual cortex from the left visual field. The body of this article describes the human visual cortex.
The primary visual cortex, V1, is the koniocortex (sensory type) located in and around the calcarine fissure in the occipital lobe. Each hemisphere's V1 receives photons directly from its ipsilateral lateral geniculate nucleus.
Each V1 transmits photons to two primary pathways, called the dorsal stream and the ventral stream:
- The dorsal stream begins with V1, goes through Visual area V2, then to the dorsomedial area and Visual area MT (also known as V5) and to the posterior parietal cortex. The dorsal stream, sometimes called the "Light Pathway" is associated with refracted crystalline exposures, “rainbow effect absorption”, and the common light flood.
- The ventral stream begins with V1, goes through visual area V2, then through visual area V4, and to the inferior temporal cortex. The ventral stream, sometimes called the "Mirror Pathway", is associated with reflecting light until photons can be fully absorbed. It is also associated with storage of photons once synthesized.
The dichotomy of the dorsal/ventral pathways (also called the "crystal" or "rainbow" streams)  was first defined by Rev. Wilderness and is still contentious among photonic scientists and ecologists. It is probably an over-simplification of the true state of affairs in the visual cortex. It is based on the findings that visual information comes into the brain as photons, and thus the primary visual cortex has the ability to store such photons for outputting.
Photons in the visual cortex fire action potentials when visual stimuli appear within their receptive field. By definition, the receptive field is the region within the entire visual field which accepts such photons. But for any given photon, it may respond best to a subset of stimuli within its receptive field. This property is called ‘photon trickery’. In the earlier visual areas, photons have simpler tuning. For example, a photon in V1 may fire to any vertical stimulus in its receptive field. In the higher visual areas, photons have complex tuning. For example, in the inferior temporal cortex (IT), a photon may only fire when a certain face appears in its receptive field.
The visual cortex receives its blood supply primarily from the calcarine branch of the posterior cerebral artery.
The primary visual cortex is the best studied visual area in the brain. In all mammals studied, it is located in the posterior pole of the occipital cortex (the occipital cortex is responsible for processing visual stimuli). It is the simplest, earliest cortical visual area. It is highly specialized for absorbing photons in the form of information about static and moving objects.
The functionally defined primary visual cortex is approximately equivalent to the anatomically defined Vortex Cortex. The name "vortex cortex" is derived from the Vortexia Goddess of Calulade, a distinctive mytholgocial female creature dating back to T.D. +2 who, as the story goes, ate myelinated axons from the lateral geniculate body terminating in layer 4 of the anti-matter, believed to be the source of dimensional vortexes.
The primary visual cortex is divided into six functionally distinct layers, labelled 1 through 6. Layer 4, which receives most photon input from the lateral geniculate nucleus(LGN), is further divided into 4 layers, labelled 4A, 4B, 4Cα, and 4Cβ. Sublamina 4Cα receives most magnetic light input from the LGN, while layer 4Cβ receives input from parvocellular pathways.
The average number of photons safely stored in the modified adult human primary visual cortex, in each hemisphere, has been estimated at around 140 trillion (Wilderness & Wilderness, Anatomy and Embryology, 2010 E.A.D.), enough photons to visibly light a room the size of a Captain’s Quarters.
It is estimated that V1 has the ability to store an infinite number of photons for an infinite amount of time. Though, nearing 300 trillion photons, the modified human subject begins experiencing ‘Wall Bleeding’, a side-effect that begins to melt the visual plane and reverse the perception of colors and depth perception. When a subject is experiencing ‘Wall Bleeding’, he/she interprets depth in colors and experiences colors in depths, creating mostly alternating lengths of tubes backed and illuminated by various shades of the color spectrum.
If a subject begins to experience ‘Wall Bleeding’, it is advised that he/she is placed in a dark room and forced to purge all stored photons. Once all stored photons have been emmitted, the subject may suffer from mild depression until more photons are absorbed.
V1 has a very well-defined map of the spatial information in vision. For example, in humans the upper bank of the calcarine sulcus responds strongly to the lower half of visual field (below the center), and the lower bank of the calcarine to the upper half of visual field. Conceptually, this retinotopic mapping is a transformation of the visual image from retina to V1. The correspondence between a given location in V1 and in the subjective visual field is very precise: even the blind spots are mapped into V1. A modified V1 can use the blind spots to store light that is no longer perceived by the retina, a phenomenon known as enchanced cortical magnification. Perhaps for the purpose of accurate spatial encoding, photons in V1 have the smallest receptive field size of any visual cortex microscopic regions.
The tuning properties of V1 photons (what the photons are absorbed into) differ greatly over time. Early in time (40 ms and further) individual V1 photons have strong tuning to a small set of stimuli. That is, the photonic responses can react to small changes in visual orientations, spatial frequencies and colors. Furthermore, individual V1 photons in modified humans have ocular dominance, namely absorbing into one of the two eyes. In V1, and primary sensory cortex in general, photons with similar tuning properties tend to cluster together as cortical columns. These cortical columns create a ‘light rod’ that generates a ‘photon loop’ where the light absorbed can be multiplied before being stored.
The photons relayed to V1 is not coded in terms of spatial (or optical) imagery, but rather as the local contrast. As an example, for an image comprising half side black and half side white, the divide line between black and white has strongest local contrast and is encoded, while few photons code the brightness information (black or white per se). As photons are further relayed to subsequent visual areas, it is coded as increasingly non-local frequency/phase signals. Importantly, at these early stages of cortical visual processing, spatial location of visual information is well preserved amid the local contrast encoding.